Onsdag den 9:e augusti år 2023
Today's name is: Roland. Congratulations on your name day!
This is week: 32
Day of the year is: 221 of total 365 days.
Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)
- 48 BC – Julius Caesar's forces defeat Pompey army i the battle of Pharsalos in Greece, despite Caesar's forces being numerically inferior (around 30,000 men against Pompey's 60,000). Caesar loses around 1,200 men, while Pompey's losses amount to between 6,000 and 15,000. This will be a decisive battle in the ongoing Roman Civil War, as the two sides finally meet on the battlefield after months of precariously avoiding each other. After the defeat, Pompey flees to Egypt, where he is assassinated a month and a half later (September 28). The victory gives Caesar the opportunity to go against Rome, in order to eventually abolish it Roman Republic.
- 378 - A combined one Visigothic and Alanic army of between 12,000 and 20,000 men defeats a Roman army of between 15,000 and 30,000 men in the battle of Adrianople in present-day Edirne in Turkey. It becomes a decisive Gothic victory during the ongoing fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth century.
- 1157 - The Danish king Knut V is murdered by his rival Sven Grate. Knut has been king of northern Jutland since 1146 and nominally king of Denmark since 1154. Sven has been his rival since 1147, when he was elected king of Zealand and at times he has chased Knut out of the country. In 1154, Knut instead succeeded in driving away Sven with the support of Valdemar Knutsson (son of the 1131 murdered duke Knut Lavard). Earlier in the summer of 1157, a settlement had been reached, where Sven became king over Eastern Denmark (the Scanian lands of Skåne and Halland, but not Blekinge, which at that time was not yet part of Denmark), Valdemar over Jutland and Knut over the intermediate islands. On this day, Sven has invited the two others gille in Roskilde, where he manages to kill Knut, while Valdemar gets away. Sven then falls in battle with Valdemar i the battle of Grate Heath on October 23 of the same year.
- 1471 - Then Paul II has passed it away July 26 is selected Francesco della Rovere to Pope and takes the name Sixtus IV. During his 13-year pontificate (until his death in 1484), he made himself the leader of the resistance to 3the Ottoman Empire, but otherwise he uses his position of power to increase his family's holdings and becomes the first pope who does not try to hide his involvement in nepotism in politics. In 1477 he issues a bull, which establishes Uppsala university in Sweden.
- 1587 - After the Polish king Stefan Batorys died in December of the year before being elected Sigismund Vasa to King of Poland. His father, the Swedish king Johan III has long been hesitant to let his son stand in the election, because Sigismund is the Swedish heir to the throne and will succeed Johan upon his death. Since Sweden and Poland have conflicting interests (among other things in the Baltics), it can be difficult with a staff union between the two countries, where they get the same regent. However, he has given in after he and his son through Kalmar statutes have agreed on Sweden's independence before the coming union. Sigismund's candidacy is supported by influential people, such as his aunt Anna Jagiellonica, who is the widow of King Stefan, and the hetman Jan Zamoyski. Thus he is elected this day (according to the Julian calendar, which is then applied in Sweden, on 19 August according to the Gregorian, then used in Poland) to King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (Poland and Lithuania have been in union since the 14th century) – he assumes both posts on 18 September. According to Kalmar's statutes, he shall not be allowed to relinquish it Swedish Estonia to Poland, while he has promised to do this to the Poles in order to be elected Polish king. After the accession, however, he refuses to cede Estonia and this becomes a point of contention between him and the Polish nobility in the following years, especially since he also became Swedish king on 17 November 1592.
- 1704 - A Swedish force of 2,300 men under Johan August Meijerfeldt d.ä. defeats a Saxon of 6,000 men led by Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg in the Battle of Posen. Despite the Swedish victory, the Swedes are forced, under the pressure of the Polish-Saxon king August the Strong advance, retreat to Warsaw. The Swedish main army under Charles XII can, however, march on towards Lemberg.
- 1788 - The Swedish Major General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt the younger assembles a group of six other officers i Great in eastern Finland, where they write the so-called Liikala note, addressed to the Russian empress Catherine the Great. In this diplomatic message, they all express their displeasure with the recent outbreak Swedish-Russian war and that they all oppose it, because it is against Sweden's interests. With the note, the officers want to explore the possibility of peace, while declaring that the war is illegal, as it goes against the Swedish form of government. Departs on the same day Johan Anders Jägerhorn from Liikala with the note to the Russian capital Saint Petersburg, where he arrives on August 12, while the authors of the note form the so-called Anjala Association.
- 1896 - One total solar eclipse occurs across Sweden.
- 1907 - The Uppsala-based sports club IK Sirius is founded under the name IK Spurt. In the beginning, in addition to sports events, entertainment is also organized with lectures, singing and music, but eventually it becomes a purely sports club. In 1991 it is divided into a football and a bandy club.
- 1945 - The American B29 bomber Bockscar drops at 11.00 the second atomic bomb on Japan, over the city Nagasaki. The bomb, which has been named Fat Man causing 60,000–80,000 residents to die and around 20,000 to be injured directly in the Japanese city. The precipitation takes place three days after the plane Enola Gay has dropped the first atomic bomb Hiroshima. These will be the (so far; 2022) only two atomic bombs dropped in war and although they lead to Japan's unconditional surrender just under a week later (14 August) in the ongoing WWII both convictions remain controversial.
- 1965 - The island state Singapore becomes independent from Malaysia. After the Japanese occupation during World War II, the British retook the island, but after a referendum in 1962, Singapore joined the Malayan Federation in 1963. After a conflict between the Singapore state government and the central government in 4Kuala Lumpur Singapore has on 7 August 1965 been excluded from the federation and on this day becomes fully independent. 9 August has since been celebrated as Singapore's National Day.
- 1969 - Some members of the killer Charles Manson's ”family” (which is more like a sect) enters a house on Cielo Drive i Beverly Hills in Los Angeles and murders the heavily pregnant actress Sharon Tate and four other people in the house. Actually, the murders are a mistake, because they are really after the music producer Terry Melcher, who lived in the house until January this year. Tate's husband, the film director Roman Polanski, is currently in Europe and therefore escapes the murders. Although Charles Manson himself does not participate in the murders, he is the mastermind behind it and he is therefore later sentenced to life imprisonment and dies in prison in 2017.
- 1974 - The American President Richard Nixon resigns due to the so-called The Watergate Affair. He has for the longest time denied involvement in the affair, but has finally been convinced and therefore chooses to leave the presidency early, rather than face a trial. He leaves the White House lawn in a helicopter, becoming the only US president to resign early without dying in office. Vice President Gerald Ford is sworn in on the same day as the new president of the United States and when he is not re-elected in the 1976 election, he becomes the only American president in the 20th century, who has taken office without being elected.
- 1982 - West Bank), but this has not yet happened.
- 1986 - The music group Queen gives his last ever concert with the singer Freddie Mercury of AIDS and dies in 1991.