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4 :e Juli år 2023

Tisdag den 4:e juli år 2023

Today's name is: Ulrika, Ulla. Congratulations on your name day!

This is week: 27

Day of the year is: 185 of total 365 days.

Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)

  • 1187 - A force of 20,000 Christians (including 1,200 knights) from Jerusalem (including various knightly orders) is defeated by 30,000 Ayyubid Muslims, led by the famous field lord Saladin, i the battle of Hattin near Tiberias at Sea of Gennesaret (in present-day Israel). The battle becomes a decisive victory for the Muslims, as they capture or kill the majority of the Christians, greatly reducing their ability to wage war, whereupon the Muslims are soon able to conquer and crush the nearly 90-year-old Christian the kingdom of Jerusalem (founded 1099). This in turn leads to several European princes starting it third crusade 1189.
  • 1374 - One year after the death of the Swedish nun Birgitta Birgersdotter in Rome (July 23, 1373) and then her children Birgers and Catherine for over six months has carried the coffin through Europe, her remains are placed in the monastery in Vadstena, East Goth, which she herself founded. Already in the same year, the first description of the miracles that are said to have occurred in Birgitta's life is written, and soon a process begins to get her canonized. This comes about in 1391 and over time she becomes known as Saint Birgitta - today one of Sweden's Catholic saints and one of Europe's eight patron saints.
  • 1415 - During the Council of Constance forced the Pope Gregory XII abdicate. Then also the Pope of Pisa John XXIII has abdicated on May 29, now only the Avignon Pope remains Benedict XIII of the three different papal factions, which at the moment are fighting for the papacy. However, neither John nor Benedict is succeeded by anyone in their positions, so the Papacy of Pisa ends with John and when Benedict is deposed two years later, the Papacy of Avignon also ends. The Holy See in Rome has been empty for two years after Gregory's deposition, before Martin W takes office in 1417, ending the disputes over the papacy, which has lasted since 1378.
  • 1534 - Since the former Danish-Norwegian king Frederick I has died on April 10 of the year before, the Danish throne has been formally vacant, but on this day his son is proclaimed Christian III officially the new king of Denmark and Norway (Kristian has, however, claimed the throne and effectively been king since his father's death). The fact that it has taken so long before Christian can be officially proclaimed is due to the fact that after Fredrik's death, a civil war broke out over the Danish royal power, which goes down in history as the count feud. The battle is between those who recognize Christian III as king and those who want to reinstate the union king who was deposed ten years earlier Christian II. The Swedish king Gustav Vasa wants to do everything to avoid Christian II returning to power and therefore Sweden also interferes in the war. In 1536 Christian III is victorious and Christian II is imprisoned for the rest of his life (until 1559).
  • 1568 - The Swedish king Erik XIV officially marries his sweetheart Karin Månsdotter at a ceremony in the Storkyrkan in Stockholm and she thus becomes Queen of Sweden (she is crowned the following day). They have, however, married secretly a year earlier, because their common child (the daughter Sigrid and the son born in 1568 Gustav) are to become legitimate, which leads to the son Gustav becoming Swedish crown prince. The fact that King Erik marries a non-royal and non-noble person is not, however, viewed kindly by the Swedish nobility and becomes one of the reasons why his brothers, the dukes Johan and Charles, a week later starts a rebellion against him, which leads to his capture and deposing at the end of September.
  • 1708 - A Swedish force of 12,500 men, led by the king Charles XII and the field marshal Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld, defeats a Russian force of 39,000 men, led by Boris Sheremetev, Alexander Menshikov and Anikita Repnin, i the Battle of Holowczyn two and a half miles west of Mahiljoŭ in present-day Belarus. The Swedish losses amount to only 267 dead and 1,028 wounded, while the Russians lose over 4,500 men in dead and wounded. The battle will be Charles XII's last major victory during Great Nordic War and he considers it his favorite victory. However, since the Russians are fleeing the battlefield, the Swedes cannot use the nearby river Dnieper as a line of defense, as is intended, and therefore the battle does not have a decisive significance for the continuation of the war.
  • 1776 - The American continental congress meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ratifies the Declaration of Independence, which was authored by several members of Congress in June and was approved on July 2.[3] And this explains itself the 13 British colonies on the North American east coast formally independent from Great Britain and forming the new state United States of America (English: United States of America; usually abbreviated USA). This formal declaration of independence is issued over a year after the outbreak of colonial war of independence towards the motherland and means that the USA counts its birth from this date - the day is therefore celebrated today as the USA's national day.
  • 1864 – Several faculties and departments of the Academy of Saint Sava (founded in 1694) in Bucharest are brought together and form University of Bucharest after a decree of prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. In 2012, it was ranked as one of the world's 700 best universities.
  • 1879 - A British force of 5,000 men, led by Frederic Thesiger, defeating a force of 12,000–15,000 Zulu warriors during Cetshwayo fought management, i the battle of Ulundi at Zululand capital of South Africa. Thus is Anglo-Zulu War, which erupted in January, over and through the British victory in the war, the Zulu Kingdom loses its independence. It remains a kingdom of its own for another 18 years, but as a British puppet state and in 1897 the country is annexed by the British as part of Natal.
  • 1888 - The non-unionised the bricklayers in Stockholm starts a strike, which lasts until July 7, in order to bring about an increase in wages from the 16 or 17 öre an hour, which has been paid until now, to 18 öre an hour. The strike is relatively insignificant, but receives a lot of attention in the press, mainly because the strikers are women (it is considered the first women's strike in Stockholm). After three days, the strike is called off, when the employers agree to the strikers' demands (during the 1890s, however, wages are reduced to 14 öre an hour, due to the prevailing recession).
  • 1946 - The United States recognizes the independence of the Philippines and the country becomes a republic after 425 years of foreign rule (since the beginning of the Spanish conquest in 1521). The archipelago has belonged to the United States ever since Spanish-American War 1898, but through the Japanese occupation during World War II, independence aspirations have really begun to assert themselves, especially as the Japanese have allowed some Philippine self-government through the establishment of the Second Philippine Republic 1943.
  • 1976 - Israeli military implements Operation Entebbe, as they free the hostages from an airplane, which has previously been hijacked by German and Palestinian terrorists and flown to Entebbe in Uganda. The terrorists have demanded the release of several prisoners from various European and Israeli prisons, but have already released most of the hostages. As Israel has promised to release the Israeli prisoners, they have succeeded in postponing the end date set by the terrorists from July 1 to 4. Then one assumes that the Ugandan dictator Idi Amin sympathizes with the hijackers, they have chosen not to cooperate with him, but carry out the raid during the night of July 4 on Ugandan territory, without Uganda's consent. All the hijackers, 45 Ugandan soldiers, 3 of the hostages and an Israeli commando (the later Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's brother Yonathan) is killed in the shooting, but otherwise the hostages (plane passengers and crew) are taken first to Nairobi and from there on to Tel Aviv. Uganda then tries in the UN to condemn Israel, because the country has violated Ugandan territory, but does not succeed.
  • 2002Västmanland's Folkblad in Västerås is closing.