Fredag den 30:e juni år 2023
Today's name is: Elof, Leif. Congratulations on your name day!
This is week: 26
Day of the year is: 181 of total 365 days.
Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)
- 296 - Then Gaius deceased on April 22 is elected Marcellinus to the Pope. During his eight years as pope, emperors are inaugurated 3Diocletian particularly severe persecution of the Christians, but it is not likely that Marcellinus would have suffered martyrdom during the persecutions.
- 1520 - The Spanish Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his army of about 600–1,000 Spaniards, aided by about 20,000 allied Indians, succeeds, during the night of July 1, in fighting their way out of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán, then the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II, whom they have taken hostage, has died the previous day. The majority of the Spaniards are killed during the fight, but although the Aztecs, who have 50,000 soldiers at their disposal, suffer fairly light losses, many of them later die from the smallpox, with which the Spanish have infected them. The incident goes down in history as La Noche Triste (the night of mourning), as Cortés afterwards expresses great sorrow at how many Spanish lives are being wasted and what great riches are passing out of the hands of the Spaniards. However, it becomes an important event during the Spanish conquest of Mexico, as the fact that Cortés manages to free himself leads to him being able to plan a siege of Tenochtitlán, which leads to the fall of the Aztec Empire.
- 1894 - After a construction period of eight years, the inauguration Queen Victoria the bridge Tower Bridge which crosses the River Thames in central London. It is right next to the medieval castle The tower (from which it takes its name) and is the result of a competition, where over 50 proposals for the design of a new bridge below London Bridge has been submitted, because another connection across the river is needed, as in the late 19th century the area around the Tower has begun to be exploited. Today, Tower Bridge is one of London's iconic landmarks.
- 1903 - The author Frida Steenhoff introduces the word feminism in Sweden with the talk "The morality of feminism" which she gives in Sundsvall today and has printed later in the year. It is also through this talk that the word gets the meaning it has today (the struggle to equalize differences between the sexes). In the past, "feminist" has been used pejoratively for people who do not want to conform to prevailing gender norms. 4
- 1908 - At a quarter past seven in the morning, a meteorite with a diameter of between 60 and 1200 meters hits the river Stony Tunguska in Siberia in eastern Russia. In the so-called The Tunguska Incident 80 million trees are felled on an area of 2,150 square kilometers of forest and the impact is the largest collision between the Earth and another celestial body in the last 100,000 years (the event is called impact, although it is most likely that the meteorite burns up in the air and never hits the Earth's surface). No people seem to have been killed or injured in the incident, but since the force is so great that it could have destroyed a large city, it causes discussions about how to avoid meteorites hitting the Earth in the future.
- 1921 - Abolished by a Swedish law amendment the death penalty in peacetime in Swedish law, which means that in Sweden it will no longer be possible to impose the death penalty for crimes committed in peacetime (the death penalty in wartime, however, remains until 1973) and the law's most severe penalty will then instead be life imprisonment. The last death sentence in Sweden was issued the year before (1920), then Mohammed Beck Hadjetlaché, who is the leader of the so-called "The Russian League” has been sentenced to death for kidnapping and murder (however, before the execution, his sentence has been commuted to life imprisonment). The last execution in Sweden took place in 1910, when the robber murderer Alfred Ander have been executed by guillotine, while there has been none public execution since 1876. Since 1975, the death penalty has been prohibited in the Swedish constitution.
- 1934 - The German dictator Adolf Hitler has several high-ranking people murdered, primarily within the paramilitary organization Sturmabteilung (SA) through an action that lasts until July 2 and goes down in history as Night of the Long Knives (German: Nacht der langen Messer). In Germany, the action also became known as the "Röhm coup", then the SA leader Ernst Röhm is one of the most important murder victims and Hitler has this "cleansing" carried out, because the SA has begun to become increasingly independent and he thus begins to see the organization as a threat to his political power. After the action, the SA remained, but on a much smaller scale and under much tighter government control, until the end of World War II in 1945.
- 1936 - The American writer Margaret Mitchell publishes the novel Gone With the Wind (English: Gone with the Wind). This grand depiction of it The American civil war becomes so popular that Mitchell is assigned The Pulitzer Prize the following year and the book filmed back in 1939. The film also becomes a huge success, which, in relation to population and inflation, becomes the most successful film ever, in terms of box office receipts (the recording budget is 3.85 million dollars, while the box office receipts will be 390 million, i.e. over 100 times as much) .
- 1942 - The last Jewish schools in Germany are closed, as part of Nazi persecution of the Jews. The Jews have then systematically, since Adolf Hitler's came to power in 1933, more and more lost their civil rights in Germany and already in January of the same year during the so-called The Wannsee Conference decided to exterminate all Jews in what is called "the final solution on the Jewish question”.
- 1952 - The American drama series The Guiding Light which since 1937 has been broadcast on radio, also begins to be broadcast on television (up to 1956 it is broadcast on both radio and television, but then only on television). When it was discontinued in 2009, it had aired over 18,000 episodes and was thus inscribed in Guinness book of records as the world's longest drama television series and from the radio start in 1937 to the television shutdown in 2009, it has therefore run for 72 years. It is also the third longest-running series in broadcast history, with only the Norwegian one Grand Ole Opry (since 1925) has been broadcast longer.
- 1954 - One total solar eclipse occurs across Sweden.
- 1960 - The Belgian colony Congo becomes independent from the mother country under the name Republic of the Congo. The area has belonged to Belgium since 1908 (having been from 1885 to 1908 the Belgian King Leopold II's personal property), but then the Congolese nationalist movement Movement National Congolais was formed in 1956, with a free Congo as its goal, the then Belgian king has Baudouin I In 1959 Congolese independence was agreed to and earlier that year (1960) Belgian and Congolese political leaders discussed how independence should be implemented in practice. The new republic is short-lived and only exists for five years, before Mobutu Sese Seko In 1965, a coup d'état takes place and transforms the country into a dictatorship with the name Zaire.
- 1962 - The commercial radio channel Radio Nord closes down according to a new law that applies from midnight. The last song they played was "Hit the Road Jack" which referred to the owner Jack S. Kotschack.
- 1983 – Västmanland's air fleet (F1) i Västerås put down.
- 1984 - The Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau resigns after four years in the post, as he intends to retire from politics (on 29 August he also resigns as leader of liberal party). He is succeeded on the same day by his party colleague John Turner, who however gets the second shortest prime ministerial tenure in Canadian history. As early as September, the liberals, the conservative Progressive Party, lose their new prime minister.
- 2000 - During a concert with the group Pearl Jam on The Roskilde Festival nine men (three Danes, three Swedes, a German, an Australian and a Dutchman) are crushed to death and around thirty people are injured when the audience rushes towards the stage. As the subsequent investigation shows that crowd surfing may have been a strong contributor to the accident (several people have fallen in one place, whereby the crowd surfers have fallen into the "hole" that has appeared and crushed the people beneath them), this will soon be banned on most festivals in Europe.
- 2005 - The ornithologist Andreas Ståhl observes one amur falcon at Kalmar Airport near Kläckeberga church in Småland. This is to date (2022) the only sighting of an Amur falcon that has been made in Sweden (the bird usually breeds in eastern Asia and southern Africa) and the discovery thus becomes a sensation in birdwatching circles.
- 2006 - The 433-year-old paper mill Klippan AB in northwestern Skåne (founded in 1573), which is the oldest in Sweden and the Nordic region, is being filed for bankruptcy due to failing customer base. However, operations can be resumed as early as December of the same year and are still running today (2022).