Torsdag den 27:e juli år 2023
Today's name is: Marta. Congratulations on your name day!
This is week: 30
Day of the year is: 208 of total 365 days.
Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)
- 1214 - A French army of 15,000 men, led by King Philip II August, defeating an Anglo-German coalition army of 25,000 men during it of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV management i the battle of Bouvines. It will be a decisive French victory in the Anglo-French War, which has been going on since 1202 and with this battle ends soon after. The war has been started by the English king Johan without a country, who in alliance with Otto IV has tried to assert his right to the French throne. Through the French victory, Johan is forced to give up these claims and Otto IV loses the imperial power to his rival the following year Frederick II, which Philip II August supports. The war victory also gives France control of Flanders and ushers in a hundred-year period of peace and prosperity for the country, which also gives the French great influence over European politics.
- 1225 – Saint Mary's Church in Visby is inaugurated as a guest church for German traders, since the German congregation's church in the city of St. Nicolai Church, has burned down. For several centuries, the city's church is without a geographical parish and has two pastors (one German and one Gutnian). Only in the early 1530s does it become Visby's parish church and at the founding of Visby Diocese becomes the cathedral. Today (2022) it is the only church inside the ring wall, which is not a ruin.
- 1361 - Five days after the Danish king Valdemar Atterdag has landed with an invasion army on Gotland, the Gotland farmers are defeated this day in a battle outside Visby ring wall, which later gets the name The battle of the cross, when the place gets the name The crucifixion, because it is pasture and a memorial cross is erected over the battle. While Visby's citizens close the city gates and watch the battle from the top of the wall, the farmers are thoroughly defeated by King Valdemar's war-experienced Danish and German knights, and while around 300 men fall on the Danish side, around 1,800 farmers have to die. After the battle, the king forces the citizens to open the city, whereupon, according to legend, he lets fire tax it for three days (that is, forcing the inhabitants to pay large ransoms in the form of gold, silver and other valuables, so that he will not let it burn down) - according to modern research, the fire estimate is probably just a guess and it is doubtful that in reality has taken place. This Danish invasion was followed by several centuries of strife between Sweden and Denmark over Gotland. Only in the 16th century did Sweden recognize the island as Danish, but through the peace in Brömsebro In 1645 it finally fell to Sweden (to which it still belongs today).
- 1518 - The Swedish Prime Minister Sten Sture the Younger's Swedish rebel troops defeat Christian II:'s Danish invasion army in the battle of Brännkyrka outside of Stockholm. The Danes have been besieging Stockholm since midsummer King Christian's second Swedish campaign. The year before, the Danes had been defeated in the battle of Vädla and then forced to stop that campaign and now they are thus defeated once more. Thus it takes until the winter of 1520, before Kristian begins his third invasion attempt, which is indeed successful (Sten Sture falls and Kristian is crowned Swedish king in November), but becomes one of the last attempts to restore The Kalmar Union, which soon after definitely goes into the grave through Gustav Vasa's war of liberation. Incidentally, the battle at Brännkyrka will be the young one Gustav Vasas first battle and he carries the Swedish banner.
- 1694 - The Bank of England Bank of England founded in London. It still exists today and is the world's second oldest national bank (after Swedish National Bank, founded in 1668) and the world's eighth oldest still existing bank. Although it is supposed to function as the bank of the English (now British) government and the country's national bank, it was privately owned at the time of its foundation and remained so until 1946, when it was nationalized. It later became the model for the structure and organization of later national banks.
- 1714 – The naval battle at Hankö udd between the Swedish and Russian fleets, which had begun the day before, ends with a Russian victory. At first the battle goes well for the Swedes, but after a Russian fleet squadron has managed to get around Hanko, they are able to attack the Swedes in the rear, which leads to the Russian victory. This allows the Russians to go to the Åland archipelago and plunder it, while the Swedes are forced to retreat to Stockholm, for repairs and to prevent a Russian attack on the Swedish capital. The Swedish defeat makes the Swedish side prefer to forget this, which becomes one of of the Great Nordic War largest naval battle, while this will be a psychologically important victory for the Russians and one of Russia's first naval victories over Sweden ever, which is why July 27 is still celebrated today (2022) in Russia as Day of the Russian Navy.
- 1839 - The order society The Wiknings Commission is founded in Linköping, as a parody of the then secret orders. It is still active today (2022) and celebrating the seven sleep day (July 27) every year with a big party and awards scholarships to high school youth in Linköping. Nowadays, the society claims to have 600 members (all male), of which 250 are active and the members often take surnames that begin with the prefix "Wik-".
- 1919 - Then the lawyer and the professor Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg two days earlier has been chosen by Parliament of Finland, and thus defeated Gustaf Mannerheim by 143 votes to 50, he takes office this day as Finland's first president. Since Finland's independence from Russia on December 6, 1917, the country has, according to the old constitution (the old 3Swedish form of government from 1772) was ruled by the national superintendent, but on July 17 has the new Finnish form of government entered into force, which has established Finland as a republic. This time the president is thus elected by the Riksdag (according to transitional provisions) and it is only in the 1925 election, as the people elect the president.
- 1939 - The Swedish writer and radio personality Gosta Knutsson publishes the first book about the Uppsala cat Peter-No-Tail, whose title is Pelle Tailless on adventure. The book is successful and leads to several sequels during the 1940s and 1950s. Until 1972, Knutsson published no less than 13 books about the cats on Åsgränd, of which all but the last were illustrated by Lucie Lundberg.
- 1945 - The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill resigns from office, because the opposition Labor party has won the British general election three weeks earlier. He is thus succeeded by the Labor leader Clement Attlee, but returns again as Prime Minister 1951–1955, then his own party (the conservatives) has won the next election. Through Churchill's resignation and the American president Franklin D. Roosevelt's death on April 12 remains only Joseph Stalin of the "big three" Allied leaders from World War II, only a month and a half after the end of the war in Europe.
- 1953 - The three-year long The Korean War ends with North and South Korea as well as China and the United States signing a cease-fire agreement in the village of Panmunjom. Peace negotiations have then been going on for two years, but after this they do not progress in the negotiations for a real peace. Although the war thus in practice ends this day it is ongoing formally than today (2022) because no peace has yet been concluded. The political situation between the two Korean states remains tense, and although some easing and rapprochement between the countries is taking place over time, they are still far from a resolution of their political disputes and the reunification of Korea, which has been North Korea's goal with the war.
- 1955 – The Allied Powers of World War II (US, UK, France and USSR) sign it Austrian State Treaty, whereby Austria's independence is restored after 10 years. Like Germany, Austria (as in 1938 4became part of Germany) since the end of World War II in 1945 been occupied by the four victorious powers in different zones of occupation and just like Berlin, the Austrian capital Vienna has also been divided into four zones of occupation, despite being well inside the Soviet zone of occupation. In the case of Germany, they have not succeeded in agreeing on the restoration of the German state (instead, in 1949, they formed West- and East Germany), but as far as Austria is concerned, all four parties have now succeeded in agreeing to have the Austrian Republic re-established and to end the occupation completely, in return for Austria remaining strictly neutral in of the cold war conflict between the great power blocs. Already in the same year, the country becomes a member of United Nations, but does not, for example, become a member of any of the defense organizations NATO or The Warsaw Pact and only in 1995 (after the end of the Cold War) a member of European Union (EU).
- 1996 - The ongoing ones Summer Olympics in Atlanta exposed a bombing, whereby two people die and 111 are injured. The perpetrator is the 29-year-old carpenter Eric Rudolph, which until 1998 carries out four bombings in the southern United States, of which this is the first, in protest against new abortion and homosexuality laws. Despite the fact that the bomb has been discovered before it has exploded and they have begun to evacuate the arena where it has been placed, they do not have time to avoid deaths and injuries. The bomb is a 150 kilogram pipe bomb, which is the largest pipe bomb in US history. When Rudolph is arrested in 2003, he pleads guilty to all four murders and accepts four life sentences, to avoid trial and the possible death penalty.
- 2009 - The Italian football club Inter sells the Swedish soccer player Zlatan Ibrahimović to Spanish Barcelona for 69 million euros. This will be the second most expensive player transfer in football history to date (after the Portuguese Cristiano Ronaldo, which in the same year is sold by English Manchester United to Spanish Real Madrid for EUR 94.4 million).
- 2012 Summer Olympics inaugurated in London by Queen Elizabeth II. It is the third time in the history of the modern Olympic Games that London is hosting. The previous times were 1908 and 1948.