Monday, June 26, 2023
Today's name is: Rachel, Leah. Congratulations on your name day!
This is week: 26
Day of the year is: 177 of total 365 days.
Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)
- 684 - Then the papal chair has been empty for a year (since Leo II's died on 28 June of the previous year) takes office Benedict II as Pope. He has actually been elected to the office already in July 683 (a few days after the death of Leo II), but has had to wait a whole year for the Byzantine emperor Constantine IV's confirmation. According to the pope length i John V.
- 1409 - During the Council of Pisa, which has been launched on March 25 to try to resolve the great schism within the Catholic Church, becomes the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII and the Pope Gregory XII deposed and instead appointed Pietro Filargi of Candia as pope with the name Alexander V. As the council is not officially sanctioned by the Catholic Church, both Benedict and Gregory refuse to accept their depositions and this instead leads to a worsening of the schism, as there are currently three popes. However, Alexander dies after only 10 months and is succeeded as Pope of Pisa by John XXIII, which in 1417 convenes a new council in Constance, where they finally manage to resolve the schism, when Oddone Colonna is elected pope with the name Martin W. Both Alexander V and John XXIII are now considered antipopes.
- 1794 - A French army of 82,000 men, led by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, defeats an allied German-Dutch-British army of 72,500 men led by the princes Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and William of Orange in the battle of Fleurus in present-day Belgium. This will be a decisive victory for the French under the French Revolutionary Wars, because it leads to Austria loses its share of the Netherlands and that the Dutch Republic dissolves, so that France can instead found the vassal state Batavian Republic there instead. This will also be the first time in world history that aviation is used in war, as the French use a hot air balloon for reconnaissance, to get a better overview of the battlefield.
- 1830 - Then the British king George IV dies without heirs, he is succeeded on the British throne by his brother William IV. However, he himself does not get any heirs of his own and therefore his niece stands Victoria second in line to the throne. Because her mother Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and his confidant Sir Ernst August I).
- 1904 - The Swedish football club Borås football team is founded, but in 1906 changes its name to the current name IF Elfsborg. Then, however, it takes 20 years (until 1926) before the team debuts in Allsvenskan. Although the team had its heyday in the 1930s and 1940s, it has won the SM gold six times, the last time in 2012.
- 1912 - The Austrian composer and conductor Gustav Mahler Ninth Symphony has its premiere in the Austrian capital Vienna, when it is staged by The Vienna Philharmonic during Bruno Walters management. This will be Mahler's last completed symphony (written in 1908–1909), but he himself never got to hear it performed, as he had died in May of the previous year. Because of this, the end has long been interpreted as Mahler's farewell to the world, but this interpretation becomes impossible when one finds his draft of a tenth symphony.
- 1945 - Signed during a conference in San Francisco in California a statute about founding a new organization to preserve world peace after WWII (which is then about to end). The organization gets the name United Nations (abbreviated UN; English: United Nations, abbreviated UN) and is officially added on October 24 of the same year, when the charter enters into force. It is initially signed by 50 of the 51 original members of the organization (Poland has no representative in place on June 26, but signs the charter two months later). Over time, the organization grows to include most of the world's states (in 2022 it has 193 members).
- 1948 - Two days after the Soviet Union started a blockade of West Berlin, to try to force the Western powers to surrender their occupation areas in the German capital, the first Western Allied plane with supplies lands in the blockaded city (namely, the Soviet Union allows planes to fly to and from the city from the western occupation zones in three air corridors). Through the constant air traffic that lasted during the 10.5 months of the blockade (until May 12, 1949), the Western Allies managed to supply West Berlin and the flights went down in history as "the air bridge". During the airlift, the Allied airmen fly a total of 55 million kilometers and transport an average of 7,128 tons of food, clothing and fuel to West Berlin every day.
- 1959 - The Swedish boxer Ingemar Johansson becomes world champion in heavyweight boxing by defeating the American Floyd Patterson by technical knockout two minutes and three seconds into the third round of a boxing match at Yankee Stadium in New York (due to the time difference between the USA and Sweden, the match takes place early in the morning on June 27 according to Swedish time). Over three million Swedes listen to Sweden's radio for moral reasons not wanting to broadcast a professional boxing match. Johansson, who goes by the nickname "Ingo", will be Sweden's so far (2022) only heavyweight boxing world champion.
- Two years after the colony of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar.
- The colony British Somaliland becomes independent from Great Britain under the name The State of Somaliland. However, this only exists for five days, before merging with Somalia on July 1 of the same year.
- 1963 - The American President John F. Kennedy holding during a visit to West Berlin a famous speech, in which he utters the words, among other things, "all free men, wherever they live, are citizens of Berlin, and therefore, as a free man, I am proud to utter the words I am a Berliner” (“I am a Berliner”). The speech becomes a milestone in Germany's post-war history, as Kennedy wants to show with it that the Allies do not intend to abandon West Berlin, which is completely surrounded by East German communist-controlled territory. According to a walking legend, the German words must be grammatically incorrect (in German it's actually just "Ich bin Berliner" and using the indefinite article "ein" in the sentence in English could lead to the interpretation that the president was actually referring to the pastry Berliner). In this context, however, the sentence is both grammatically and contextually correct, and since Kennedy is not a Berliner in the truest sense, but only expressing his solidarity with the West Berliners, the sentence must read exactly as he says it, to be correct.
- 1975 - The Indian President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed before, on prime minister Indira Gandhi's request, the 1980 election.
- 1977 - The American rock artist Elvis Presley gives his very last concert in Indianapolis in Indiana. On August 17, the then 42-year-old Presley was supposed to start a new tour, but the day before he died of an overdose of tablets. In the years since 1969, he has given over 1,100 concerts, of which the one in Indianapolis will therefore be the last. At the autopsy, it is clear that Presley's body has been broken down by several years of drug abuse.
- 1987 – United Nations Convention Against Torture took effect.
- 1995 – 15-year-olds Sarah Balabagan from the Philippines, working as maid in United Arab Emirates, is found guilty of murdering his employer on June 19 of the previous year and is sentenced to seven years in prison. She must also pay 150,000 Emirati dirhams in damages to the victim's relatives, but is also awarded 100,000 dirhams in damages, as the employer has tried to rape her. On September 6 of the following year, another court states that there is no evidence of the attempted rape and she is therefore sentenced to death for murder. However, she becomes of the Emirati president Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan pardoned to one year in prison and 100 strokes of the cane and to pay restitution (to be paid by a Filipino businessman). The caning sentence is carried out in early 1996 and since she has been released she returns on August 1 of the same year, where she is received as a heroine, since her case has attracted international attention and focused attention on the situation of domestic workers in countries around Persian gulf.
- 1996 - The Irish Journalist Veronica Guerin is murdered, after receiving several death threats, when during the 1990s she has written about Ireland's underworld and the drug and arms trade. When the murder becomes known, it leads to protest marches being carried out all over the country and the government decides due to these, that Irish citizens should be deprived of all objects that may be connected to criminal activity and to introduce tougher rules against crime.