Tisdag den 25:e juli år 2023
Today's name is: Jacob. Congratulations on your name day!
This is week: 30
Day of the year is: 206 of total 365 days.
Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)
- 306 – Constantine the Great proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops. During his 30 years in power (until his death in 337), he implements a series of changes in the Roman Empire, such as introducing religious freedom, which leads to an end to the persecution of Christians and later to Christianity becoming the state religion of the empire at the end of the 4th century , and to move the capital to Constantinople by the Bosphorus. During the first 20 years, he is forced to fight for power against rival emperor candidates, before 324 he stands as the sole victor in the power struggle.
- 1261 - The Nicene the general Byzantine Empire.
- 1330 - The antipope Nicholas V renounces his claims to the papacy and is thereby deposed. He was appointed Pope in Rome in 1328 in protest against the fact that the legitimate Popes at that time were domiciled in Avignon in the South of France. 1329 has Pope John XXII excommunicated him, but the latter reinstates him in the church, when he now recognizes John as the real pope. Nicolaus was then kept in princely custody in the papal palace in Avignon until his death in 1333.
- 1526 - The Swedish king Gustav Vasa submits to the estates a proposal that "through a graph unite the Vänern with the Hjälmaren and this again with the Mälaren, in the event that the river, which connects these latter lakes, should be found too narrow". Namely, they want to build a canal that connects the Baltic Sea with the Kattegat, so that they don't have to ship Swedish goods through the Öresund, where the Danes take up Öresund Customs. During Gustav Vasa's lifetime, however, nothing more happens with these plans, but they remain alive during the rest of the 16th century, and a bit along the way you get to the beginning of the 17th century, through the construction of Charles IX's canal. During the 18th century, people got so far that they managed to make the path between Lake Vänern and Kattegatt passable, but it was delayed until the inauguration of Göta canal 1832, before getting a navigable route between the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat.
- 1554 – Mary I, who had become reigning Queen of England and Ireland a year earlier, marries Philip I of Naples (later Philip II of Spain). In connection with the marriage, it is proclaimed that all of Mary's rights as reigning queen shall also accrue to Philip and thus he is officially counted as king of England and Ireland for as long as the marriage lasts. After Mary's death in 1558, he effectively no longer has any rights in the British Isles, but continues to claim them, including as a means to be able to re-introduce Catholicism in England. This is one of the reasons why England and Spain have been at odds with each other for several decades and that the Spanish are trying to subdue England through the great armada 30 years later (1588).
- 1894 – First Sino-Japanese War erupts with the Japanese navy attacking and defeating the Chinese in a colony named Chosen in 1910.
- 1909 - The French aviation pioneer Louis Blériot becomes the first person to cross the English Channel in an airplane. He begins the flight outside the French Calais at 04.41 in the morning and lands in a meadow outside the English Dover after 37 minutes of flight. In doing so, he wins the prize of £1,000, as the daily paper Daily Mail has announced the first to fly across the channel. Blériot later founds an aircraft factory and has a great influence on the development of aviation technology and the aviation industry in France.
- 1934 - The Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss is murdered by Nazis through the so-called "The July coup”, since he introduced on 1 May joined Germany in 1938, the assassins began to be regarded as Nazi martyrs.
- 1943 - The Italian fascist leader and dictator Benito Mussolini is deposed as Italy's leader in a bloodless coup by The Great Council of Fascism, as World War II is getting worse for Italy (the Allies have landed in Sicily and Italy is becoming more and more dependent on Germany) and the next day he becomes king Victor Emmanuel III:'s order arrested, followed by that the Italian Fascist Party dissolves itself on July 27. The king instead appoints a transitional government under the general Pietro Badoglio leadership, which in September concludes a separate peace with Great Britain. During the same month, however, Mussolini is freed by German troops and installed as head of state for the specially created government Salò Republic in north Italy. This lasts until 1945, when it collapses and Mussolini is captured on April 27th and executed on the 28th - two days before Hitler's suicide.
- 1950 – Walter Ulbricht appointed to Socialist Unity Party of Germany first secretary and thus becomes of East Germany political leaders. He holds the post for over 20 years (until 1971), before being deposed, but is allowed to retain the honorary title of "Chairman" until his death in 1973. The most famous event during Ulbricht's time in power is the construction of The Berlin Wall, which begins on August 13, 1961, barely two months after Ulbricht made the statement that "no one has any intention of building any wall".
- 1952 - Then the American president Harry S. Truman has ratified Puerto Rico's new constitution on July 3rd, it is officially adopted by the governor of the island, the 51st state of the United States, but since the inhabitants themselves have said no to this, this has not become a reality yet (2022).
- 1956 - The Italian passenger ship S/SAndrea Doria collides during the night of July 26 with Swedish M/SStockholm off Nantucket near New York. The Italian ship sinks (in 11 hours), killing 51 people on board her, while the Swedish ship (where 5 people die) is able to take on board the remaining passengers and crew from Andrea Doria and make it into New York for repairs. Under the name Athena is Stockholm still in service today (2022).
- 1957 - A year after that French Protectorate of Tunisia has become independent from the mother country, the country's monarchy is abolished and a republic is introduced, then the Prime Minister Habib Bourguiba overthrows King Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
- 1978 - The British girl Louise Brown born as the world's first test tube baby. Her parents John and Lesley Brown have not been able to have a child through regular unprotected intercourse and have therefore managed to get help with fertilization through a new method, in which doctors have successfully fertilized one of Lesley's eggs with John's sperm outside her body and then reintroduced the egg into her . The pregnancy has since continued as usual, but due to the new method attention is paid to the delivery (which takes place by caesarean section). The method came to Sweden a few years later and the first Swedish test-tube baby was born in Gothenburg in 1982.
- 1984 - The Russian Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to complete one space walk. In 1982 she became the second woman in space (after Valentina Tereshkova 1963) and during her career as a cosmonaut (until her retirement in 1993) she spends a total of almost three weeks in space.
- 1992 – 1992 Summer Olympics inaugurated in Barcelona by King Juan Carlos.
- 2000 - One Concorde plane crashes outside the French capital Paris, killing all on board. During the investigation of the accident, all Concorde planes are grounded, but after more than a year of investigation and improvements, the aircraft type is ready for service again on September 11, 2001. The September 11 attacks in the US on the same day, however, leading to the first passenger flight being postponed until December of the same year. However, the Concorde plane never manages to recover and in 2003 the aircraft type is taken out of service for good.