Saturday 22 July 2023
Today's name is: Magdalena, Madeleine. Congratulations on your name day!
This is week: 29
Day of the year is: 203 of total 365 days.
Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)
- 259 - Then Sixtus II has died the year before being elected Dionysius to the Pope. During this time, the Christians in the Roman Empire are still being persecuted and therefore it has taken almost a year after the death of Sixtus, before they have been able to choose a new pope. 3
- 1227 - A German force under the command of Count Adolf IV of Holstein defeats a Danish army, led by King Valdemar Sejr in the battle of Bornhöft. This is a decisive defeat for the Danes, who are forced to give up possession of the Estonian island of Ösel and their conquests in Northern Germany (except Rügen) – the Danish southern border is moved from the river Elbe to the river Eider. This is the end of the Danish Baltic Empire, which has been built up since the 12th century, and the new Danish-German border, which forms the southern border of the Duchy of Schleswig, becomes Denmark's southern border until 1806.
- 1298 - An English force of 15,000 men, led by King Edward I defeats a Scottish force of 6,000 men, led by it Scottish Rebel leader and the hero of freedom William Wallace, i the battle of Falkirk. The battle is a decisive English victory, partly because it causes Wallace to resign as Guardian of Scotland shortly afterwards and the victory shows that Edward is not as weak a king as people have come to suspect (due to previous defeats against Wallace and costly war enterprises against France).
- 1456 - The two-week long one the siege of Belgrade, which has been going on since July 4, comes to an end, when a Hungarian force under János Hunyadis leadership defeats the besieging Ottomans, led by Sultan Mehmet II, in the Battle of Nándorfehérvár, since the Ottomans had marched into the city the day before. The battle becomes an important Christian victory, as it shows the participating Hungarians and Serbs (and by extension all of Christian Europe) that the Ottomans are not unbeatable. Thus the Muslim conquest of Hungary is postponed by 70 years and the Christian world is saved from the Muslims for the time being. The victory also leads to July 22 being celebrated as a national day of remembrance in Hungary even today (2022).
- 1805 - A British fleet squadron of 15 ships of the line, led by Admiral Pierre-Charles de Villeneuve, which is on its way home from the West Indies. The battle is of no decisive importance and Calder is later court-martialed and severely reprimanded for not resuming the fighting the following day and thus not preventing Villeneuve from uniting his fleet with the Ferrol squadron, which could have led to the decisive battle that would have saved Britain from the threat of a French invasion. On the other hand, Villeneuve chooses not to return to Brest, to join other French ships there and clear the English Channel before a French invasion.
- 1863 - The Swedish-Norwegian and Danish kings Charles XV and Frederick VII meet in Skodsborg outside Copenhagen. During the so-called The Skodsborg meeting promises Charles XV on his own initiative, without having previously conferred with the Swedish government or foreign minister Ludvig Manderström, that Sweden-Norway should offer the Danes military support with at least 20,000 men in their conflict with Prussia over the southern Danish duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. When the result of the meeting comes to the attention of the Swedish government, it will be held in September an intergovernmental conference, where the Swedish and Norwegian governments cancel the king's promise, so that there is no risk that Sweden will end up in war. When war breaks out between Denmark and Prussia the following year, the Swedish-Norwegian help does not materialize (apart from a few hundred volunteer Swedes) and Denmark loses the war and the duchies.
- 1894 - The world's first motor racing competition organized by the French newspaper Le petit journal and runs between the French cities of Paris and Rouen. It has been preceded by a four-day display of the participating vehicles and a qualifying race of 50 kilometers around Paris. The first to finish in Rouen after the 127 kilometer stretch is Jules-Albert de Dion, but because his steam car has a coal feeder, he is disqualified. The winner of the 5,000 francs, which makes up the winnings, instead goes to Albert Lemaître, who drives a Peugeot.
- 1933 - The American crashes at the start.
- 1934 – The bank robber and the gangster John Dillinger is gunned down by FBI agents as he exits a movie theater in Chicago. He is hit by five shots, one in the neck, and dies very quickly. During his short criminal career (since the year before), the 30-year-old Dillinger and his cronies have carried out so many robberies that the police have named him "Public Enemy Number 1" (English: "Public Enemy no. 1") and although many other gangsters operate at the same time, the early 1930s will later be referred to as the "Dillinger era".
- 1942 - After the Nazis during the so-called The Wannsee Conference in January has decided that "the final solution” on the Jewish question will mean the extermination of Europe's Jews in concentration camps, deportations of Jews from Warsaw in German-occupied Poland to the concentration camp begin on this day Treblinka, whose operations begin the following day. The camp is used until October of the following year, when the last prisoners are shot dead and the camp is closed. During its period of use, between 700,000 and 1.2 million people are murdered there.
- 1991 - American police arrest the serial and sexual killer Jeffrey Dahmer at his home in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, after one of his intended victims managed to escape. In his home, well-preserved body parts of several of Dahmer's previous victims are found, and it turns out that during 13 years (since 1978) he has raped and murdered 17 men and boys, later also with elements of necrophilia and cannibalism. Dahmer is diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, but it is found that he was sane when he committed the murders and he is therefore sentenced to 15 life sentences (later extended by one more). In 1994, he was beaten to death by a fellow prisoner.
- 1999 - 18 years after the American the space shuttle program has been started (1981) becomes Eileen M. Collins the first female commander aboard such a craft, then the ferry Columbia lift up on his 26th assignment (which lasts until July 27).
- 2003 - The Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein's both sons Uday and Qusay are shot dead, along with Qusay's 14-year-old son, by American forces in Iraqi Mosul. Uday, who is the eldest, has previously been Saddam's heir to the throne, but this honor has recently been transferred to Qusay, as after a previous assassination attempt, Uday has begun to exhibit increasingly irrational behavior.
- 2005 - The Brazilian electrician Jean Charles de Menezes, who has been living in the British capital London for three years, is shot dead by British police at Stockwell tube station, when he is suspected of being involved in a failed bombing in the city the day before, which in turn is seen as a continuation of the bombings which the city was subjected to on July 7 of the same year. When the investigation later shows that de Menezes is innocent, this leads to strong debate in the UK about the police's "shoot to kill" attitude, which goes by the code name Operation Kratos. The code name is abolished in 2007, but the procedure continues to this day (2022).
- 2011 - Norway is exposed to a double terrorist attack, first by a car bomb exploding in the government quarters in the capital Oslo at half past four, which kills 8 people and damages several government buildings, then by the lone perpetrator heading to The Labor Party's youth association summer camp on the island of Utøya a few miles away and first pretends to be a policeman, but then starts shooting youths at the camp, killing 69 people there, before being stopped after an hour. One suspects at first that the deed has been carried out by some terrorist organization, but it soon turns out that they have been carried out by the lone Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik, who the following year is sentenced to 21 years in prison (the most severe sentence in Norwegian law) for the crime.