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21 :e Juli år 2023

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Today's name is: Johanna. Congratulations on your name day!

This is week: 29

Day of the year is: 202 of total 365 days.

Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)

  • 356 BCHerostratos burns down The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus.
  • 230 - Then Urban I has died on May 23 is elected Pontianus to the Pope. As Pontian becomes the first pope to be dealt with in the papal chronicles, which begin to be written down from the 200s, he also becomes the first pope for whom the exact date of accession is known (previous popes could best be dated to a specific year).
  • 649 - Then Theodor I has died on May 14 is elected Martin I to the Pope. Because he soon becomes unfamiliar with the Byzantine emperor Constance II in Constantinople, by going against him in several important matters, he is already after four years deposed by the emperor. Martin accepts the sale without bloodshed and dies two years later in exile on the Crimean peninsula.
  • 1773 - Pope Clemens XIV officially dissolves the over 200-year-old religious Jesuit Order through the letter Pius VII can therefore restore the 1814.
  • 1798 - A French army of 20,000 men, led by the general Napoleon Bonaparte, defeats an Ottoman army of 50,000 men (including reinforced with mamluker), led by the Battle of the Nile ten days later, shatters these dreams.
  • 1861 - A northern state army of upwards of 35,000 men clashes with an equally strong southern state force in the first battle at Bull Run in Virginia, which will be the first major clash during it The American civil war, which has erupted three months earlier. Northern State Army is on its way to the southern state capital Richmond, to capture it and thus bring an end to the war quickly, but this is a politically forced decision and the army is not really prepared for it. Therefore, the battle becomes a victory for the southern states and both sides realize that the war will not end in a jiffy. It was not until April 1865 that the northern state left with the victory.
  • 1865 - The revolver man Wild Bill Hickock shoots down the player and the former soldier of the Wild West and one of the few, which actually takes place. During the Wild West era, not many such duels occur, but they will later be included in the iconic image of the period, as they often occur and are romanticized in fiction, radio shows and movies. In the settlement, the shooting is also not performed in the way that later becomes classic in the western genre (that men stand facing each other and must "pull first"), but rather in a classic dueling manner, by looking at each other from the side and then aiming at each other, before they shoot.
  • 1878 - During the voyage of discovery Adolf Erik Nordenskiölds management leaves the ships Vega and The Northeast Passage (ie a navigable waterway north of Russia). The expedition will take two years, during which time during the winter of 1878–1879 it will be stuck in the ice in the Arctic Ocean for several months. After sailing around the entire Eurasian continent, they return to Stockholm in triumph, after what is considered one of the greatest Swedish scientific successes of the 19th century.
  • 1937 - The Irish Free State Dáil (parliament) appoints the politician and the freedom fighter Éamon de Valera, which is also the party Fianna Fáils leader, to the President of the country's Executive Council, which in practice means that he is the Prime Minister of Ireland. de Valera will be the last person in the post, as it will be abolished and replaced by the title just before the turn of the year. Taoiseach, who is partly given other powers and is also formally the Prime Minister. de Valera then becomes the first person in this office and holds it until 1948 (plus two rounds during the 1950s).
  • 1944 - US troops begin a landing on the Pacific island of Guam, to retake the island from the Japanese and the battle of Guam will last for three weeks. On August 10, the Americans recaptured the entire island with a loss figure of 1,747 out of 36,000 men, while the Japanese count just over 18,000 out of 22,000 dead. However, this will be one of the cases where Japanese forces continue to fight even after Pacific War and the end of the entire Second World War and as late as 1972 the last Japanese soldier capitulated on the island.
  • 1954 The second part of Geneva Conference, which has lasted since May 8, is terminated. The participating parties (France, the United Kingdom, the United States, China, the Soviet Union, Laos, Cambodia, Viet Minh (North Vietnam) and South Vietnam) have negotiated an end to the conference. The Indochina War between France and its colonies in French Indochina. Several states do not sign the final document of the conference and thus do not consider themselves bound by it (including the United States), but this means that the war ends less than two weeks later, that France gives up and leaves its Southeast Asian colonies and that the United States begins to take a more active part in the region, which later leads to the country's active involvement in The Vietnam War.
  • 1960 - Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, who is the widow of Sri Lanka's former Prime Minister Solomon Bandaranaike (who was assassinated in September the year before), succeeds her husband as leader of the Sri Lankan Freedom Party (SLFP).[3] As this means that she also automatically takes over the post of Prime Minister, she thus becomes the world's first female Prime Minister, a post she will hold in various rounds until two months before her death in October 2000.
  • 1969 - Since the American lunar landing expedition Apollo 11 the night before has landed the lunar lander The Eagle on the moon's surface, the astronaut leaves Neil Armstrong the lunar lander just before three o'clock at night and at 02.56 becomes the first person ever to set foot on the moon. A quarter of the earth's population follows the lunar landing via television and hears Armstrong's famous statement that "that's one small step for man, but a giant leap for mankind" ("it is a small step for a man, but a giant step for humanity" ). Then also the colleague Buzz Aldrin have landed on the moon, the two men walk there for two and a half hours, before returning to The Eagle and then back to the space rocket. Three days later (July 24), they land on Earth again.
  • 1970 - After a construction period of ten years, the Egyptian stands Assuandammen finished. It dams up the river Nile, but filling it completely with water takes several years (when the first construction phase was completed in 1964, they started filling it with water, but it is not completely filled until 1976). During the construction of the dam, a new lake has been created, which has led to the area where the ancient monument Abu Simbel were flooded. However, this has been able to be saved, since the UN agency Unesco has taken the initiative to move it in 1964.
  • 1983 - Researcher at the Soviet Research Station Vostok at the South Pole measures a temperature of −89.2 ° C, which will be the lowest temperature ever measured on earth in reliable measurements (this is the middle of winter in the southern hemisphere). It will thus be a world record in low temperature both up to now (such a low temperature has never been measured before) and thereafter (the record is still unbeaten today [2022]). The highest temperature ever on earth was measured in Death Valley, California on July 10, 1913 and reaches 56.7 ° C.