Tisdag den 18:e juli år 2023
Today's name is: Frederick, Fritz. Congratulations on your name day!
This is week: 29
Day of the year is: 199 of total 365 days.
Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)
- 387 BC – A force of 12,000 Cisalpine Gauls, led by the Sennonian chieftain Brennus from Italy's Adriatic coast, defeats a Roman twice as large here i the battle of Allia In Italy. Through the Gallic victory, the Gauls can sack the city of Rome on the same day, except Capitol Hill, which is successfully defended by the Romans, marking the last time in 800 years (before the Vandals sacked the city in AD 410) that the city suffered this fate (the traditional date of the battle and sacking is 390 BC, but scholars see now the year 387 BC as more likely). The Romans, however, try to buy themselves free from Brennus, when they see their city laid waste, and agree to pay one thousand pounds in gold weight. While Brennus is arguing about the weight of gold with the Romans, the exiled dictator appears Marcus Furius Camillus with an army and refuses to let him take the gold. In an initial battle through the streets of Rome, the Gauls are driven out of the city, and in a second battle some distance from the city, Camillus defeats them, earning him the epithet Rome's second founder, because he has saved the city.
- 64 - The Roman capital Rome is hit during the night of July 19 by a big fire, starting at Circus Maximus and devastates large parts of the city for a week. The Roman Emperor Nero accuses the Christians, a small but growing sect at the time, of having started the fire and therefore begins some persecution of them. According to other rumors, it is supposed to be Nero himself who started it, because he wants to quickly and efficiently demolish the city, in order to rebuild it according to a new city plan. Indeed, the city is being rebuilt according to a new city plan, but the rumors of Nero's guilt lack proof. According to late sources, Nero is supposed to have played the lyre or the violin while he watched the fire, but this is not true, as he was in Antium at the time (the violin was not invented at this time, by the way).
- 1210 - The deposed Swedish king Swears the younger one makes an attempt to reclaim the crown from his throne rival Erik Knutsson (who defeated and deposed him in the battle of the Lena 1208), by invading Västergötland with Danish help. However, this day (or the day before) he is again defeated by Erik i the battle of Gestilren, where he also falls. This is the end of the Swedish civil war, which has lasted since 1205, when Sverker killed Erik's three younger brothers in the battle of Älgarås. The fight for the crown between them mother in law and Eric's families however, continues for another decade (until the swerker dies on the sword's side with Johan Sverkersson 1222) and by extension to 1234, when the pretender to the throne Knut Långe dies and Erik's son Erik can reclaim the crown. The battle is finally settled in 1251, then Birger Jarl crushes the second populist rebellion.
- 1216 - Then Innocent III having died two days earlier, Cencio Savelli is elected Pope and takes the name Honorius III. The election takes place under great pressure on the Church, as the threat of a Tatar invasion of Europe is imminent and the Church is extremely close to ending up in a schism over religious issues. Actually, there are two other people who are the main candidates for the papacy, but since they cannot agree on either of them, they both refrain from running and instead let Savelli be elected, because he is a candidate everyone can agree to, because will quickly produce a pope. During his eleven-year pontificate, he mainly tries to get Christian Europe to go on new crusades, to conquer Jerusalem from the Muslims.
- 1290 - The English King Edward I issues the so-called was destroyed by the Romans; on the same day in 1306 and 1492 respectively, edicts are also issued, which expel the Jews from France and Spain respectively).
- 1656 - An allied army of 18,000 Swedes and Brandenburgers marches towards the Polish capital, Warsaw, when they encounter the Polish army of around 40,000 men. Thus begins the three-day battle of Warsaw (which, as the name suggests, runs until July 20). Although the Swedish-Brandenburg side is victorious on July 20 and marches into the Polish capital on the 24th, this will be a turning point to the disadvantage of the Swedes in the ongoing the war between Sweden and Poland. After this battle, the initiative begins to pass to the Poles and the war goes from bad to worse for the Swedes. The Danish declaration of war against Sweden in June the following year becomes a godsend for the Swedish king Charles X Gustav, because he can then pull the Swedish army out of Poland and focus his forces on Denmark, without it looking like a flight (which it actually is).
- 1812 - Sweden and Great Britain and later the same day also Great Britain and Russia close the peace in Örebro (which are actually two peaces) under this year's Swedish Parliament in the city. The Swedish-British peace ends the formal state of war, which has reigned between the countries since 1810 (however without any conflicts, since Sweden and Great Britain are actually allies in the fight against emperors Napoleon I:'s France, but the French have forced a Swedish declaration of war against Great Britain after the Swedish defeat in the peace of Paris in 1810). The Russo-British peace ends the war between these countries, which has lasted since 1807 (when Russia and France became allies by the peace of Tilsit) and comes about since France just under a month earlier has made a complete turnaround and launched an invasion of Russia.
- 1870 - During the ongoing First Vatican Council the Catholic Church adopts its second dogmatic constitution Pastor Aeternus. Through this, the often misunderstood is established and explained The dogma of infallibility, that is, the infallibility of the Pope, which means that statements made by the Pope are automatically considered true and do not need the approval of the Church. The dogma has existed since the Middle Ages and was mainly emphasized during the Counter-Reformation, but it is thus only now that the Church officially establishes it.
- 1871 - After a construction period of four years, it is inaugurated Stockholm Central Station, in connection with also inaugurating the so-called the connecting path, which runs through Stockholm and connects what will later become North and southern main line. The original appearance of the station was created by the architect Adolf W. Edelsvärd, but over the years there have been a number of conversions and extensions by other architects, above all Folke Zettervalls central hall in the 1920s.
- 1925 - The German Nazi politician Adolf Hitler publishes the first part of its political manifesto Mein Kampf (the second part is published the following year). This first part, which he has written by dictating it to his friend Rudolph Hess, while he has been imprisoned for his failed coup d'état in 1923, is an autobiography, in which he describes his upbringing, his time in the army during the First World War and how he has since developed his National Socialist ideology. It will then be in the second part, that he presents his political proclamation about how the state and politics should be conducted.
- 1952 – 1952 Summer Olympics inaugurated in Helsinki by the president Juho Kusti Paasikivi.
- 1969 - The Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl and his crew abandons the reed boat Ra I after the stern has begun to sink and water has begun to be taken in. You have then sailed for almost two months, only have one week left of the voyage, where you have tried to cross the Atlantic by sailing from Morocco to the Caribbean. The expedition is an attempt to prove that America may have been colonized from Africa in ancient times, in that the Egyptians may have built such boats from papyrus and crossed the Atlantic. The following year, Heyerdahl carried out a new expedition with the improved ship Ra II and this time the expedition is successful.
- 1993 - The moderate national economist Anne-Marie Pålsson begins the Swedish so-called the pig debate, when she suggests that you should be able to make tax deductions for household services (services performed in the home, except for repairs and maintenance). Bourgeois politicians are generally in favor of the proposal, as they argue it would reduce the number dirty work in the sector concerned, while left-wing supporters are negative, as they believe it would increase class differences in Sweden. Only in 2007 before government Reinfeldt the so-called The RUT deduction, which means just such a tax deduction. The name the pig debate comes from the fact that such services as are referred to, for example cleaning, cooking etc. were formerly performed by maids.
- 1995 - The volcano Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the West Indies, which has been dormant for centuries, erupts, initiating several years of volcanic activity - it continues, albeit with reduced intensity, to this day (2022). During the first year of the eruption, the southern half of the island and its settlements, including the capital Plymouth and the airport, are destroyed and a new capital and airport are forced to be built on the northern part of the island.