Måndag den 17:e juli år 2023
Today's name is: Bruno. Congratulations on your name day!
This is week: 29
Day of the year is: 198 of total 365 days.
Historical events this day: (from Wikipedia)
- 330 BC - Then the Macedonian king Alexander the Great in recent years in battle after battle has defeated the Persian great king Darius III he is deposed and killed by it reverse risk the satrap Bessos, as through the defeats he has shown himself to be a weak monarch. Under the name of Artaxerxes, Bessos proclaims himself great king of it the Persian Empire and tries to beat back Alexander's invasion. When he fails to do this, however, his popularity declines and the following year he himself is deposed and handed over to the Macedonians, who torture and execute him, whereupon Alexander can proclaim himself Great King of Persia.
- 561 - Then Pelagius I has died March 3 or 4, Catelinus is appointed pope and takes the name John III. He was actually elected shortly after the death of Pelagius, but had to wait until this day, before the Byzantine emperor Justinian I has approved the appointment. John's pontificate lasts 13 years and he is forced to live in the catacombs of Rome at times, because he has made enemies of the pro-emperor stratum in Rome, by summoning the general Narses, accused of treason, to the city, to save it from the ravages of the Lombards.
- 924 - Vid Edward the Elder's dead, he is succeeded as King of Wessex by his son Ethelweard. However, he himself dies after only two weeks and is then succeeded by his brother Æthelstan. According to some theories, Ethelweard is assassinated by his brother, who has already seized power in part of the kingdom. However, it takes until the following year, before the whole country agrees to crown Æthelstan king.
- 1048 - After Benedict IX has been deposed the day before Poppo is elected by Curagnoni as Pope and takes the name Damasus II, but dies after only three weeks in the post. However, Damasus' first action as Pope is to excommunicate Benedict, as he is accused of 3simony (to buy or sell ecclesiastical offices), because he has been pope three times and on one occasion resigned, by selling the papacy to the highest bidder.
- 1210 - The deposed Swedish king Swears the younger one makes an attempt to reclaim the crown from his throne rival Erik Knutsson (who defeated and deposed him in the battle of the Lena 1208), by invading Västergötland with Danish help. However, this day (or the day after) he is again defeated by Erik i the battle of Gestilren, where he also falls. This is the end of the Swedish civil war, which has lasted since 1205, when Sverker killed Erik's three younger brothers in the battle of Älgarås. The fight for the crown between them mother in law and Eric's families however, continues for another decade (until the swerker dies on the sword's side with Johan Sverkersson 1222) and by extension to 1234, when the pretender to the throne Knut Långe dies and Erik's son Erik can reclaim the crown. The battle is finally settled in 1251, then Birger Jarl crushes the second populist rebellion.
- 1453 - A French force of 10,000 men defeats an equally strong English here in the battle of Castillon. This will be the final blow below the hundred years war between England and France and a decisive French victory, as it results in the English losing all their possessions in France except Calais (which remained in English hands until 1558). A few months later (in October), the war (which has been going on since 1337) ends with a French victory, although the formal end of peace does not come until 1475.
- 1788 - The Swedish and Russian fleets meet in naval battle at Hogland, which is fought over six hours and in which both sides capture one ship each from the other. The battle becomes a draw, because at nightfall the Swedes do indeed have the upper hand, but then run out of ammunition and cannot pursue the retreating Russians. The Swedish fleet then retreats to the fortress Suaveborg, where it can neither be repaired nor replenished, while the Russian is quickly repaired and replenished at the naval base Kronstadt, to then continue the naval warfare in the meantime the war between Sweden and Russia.
- 1793 - Four days after the radical the Girondist Charlotte Corday has murdered the revolutionary Jean Paul Marat in Paris she is executed by guillotining for the murder. After the crime, she made no attempt to escape, but was immediately arrested and is speaking the scaffolding that "I have killed one person to save a hundred thousand".
- 1917 - The British royal family changes their surname from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the more English-sounding Windsor (after the castle Windsor Castle). The royal house has been called Saxe-Coburg-Gotha since 1901, then Queen Victoria eldest son Edward VII became king (he then succeeded his father Prince Albert ate, rather than the mother's Hanover). During the ongoing First World War, however, the mood in the country has become increasingly anti-German and anti-King George V therefore feels compelled to play down the German origin.
- 1918 - Then the Russian Tsar Nicholas II has been forced to abdicate in March 1917, he and his family have been held in prison custody by the Bolsheviks. They have planned to put the Tsar on trial, for his crimes against the Russian people, but white opponents at that Russian Civil War threatens to advance against Yekaterinburg, where the family is kept, it is decided to execute them immediately, so as not to risk an exemption. When the whole family is executed, the victims are buried in a shallow grave nearby, which was only found in 1989. In 1998, the family gets a proper burial. In 2001, they were canonized by the Russian Church, and in 2008, Russia's Supreme Court ruled that the executions were illegal.
- 1936 - Opposition troops start a rebellion in Spanish Protectorate of Morocco, which will be the introduction to it Spanish Civil War. The war will last for three years between the Republicans (who are loyal to the Republican government) and the Nationalists under General Francisco Franco's management. In the spring of 1939, the nationalists win, which leads to the second of the Spanish Republic case and that Franco becomes Spain's dictator until his death in 1975.
- 1945 – A conference begins in Potsdam outside Berlin between the victorious powers of the Second World War, the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, and runs until August 2. It is headed by the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, the American president Harry S. Truman and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (after the British election exchanged for Clement Attlee) and is about how it defeated Germany must be administered. Among other things, it is decided that Germany's eastern border with Poland should consist of the rivers Oder and Neisse and that the Germans in the former German territories, which now belong to other states, should be transferred to German territory.
- 1955 - The filmmaker Walt Disney's amusement park Disneyland in Anaheim in California is inaugurated, when the park is shown to the press (it opens to the public the following day). The park has been added since Disney has received many requests for people to come and see Disney Studios, but he has realized that an animation studio is not much to see. Nowadays, the park is one of the world's most famous and well-visited amusement parks and has had over 500 million visitors since its opening. In 1971, another Disney park opens in the United States (Disneyworld in Orlando in Florida) and today there are several Disney parks in different places in the world (among others in Paris and Tokyo).
- 1975 - The Soviet spacecraft Soyuz docks with the American counterpart Apollo. This joint Soviet-American project becomes an important step in the space race and the détente between the two countries during Cold War, in that it is now not only a matter of both countries trying to defeat each other in space, but can also imagine cooperating. In the press, the event is called The handshake in space and The Summit.
- 1976 – 1976 Summer Olympics inaugurated in Montreal by Queen Elizabeth II.
- 1990 - The Palestinian one The PLO leader Yasser Arafat marries in Tunisia with Suha Tawil. The marriage is kept secret for 15 months, while the Catholic Tawil converts to Islam. In 1996, the couple had a daughter, Zahwa, and after Arafat's death in 2004, Tawil and the daughter settled in Paris.
- 1998 – Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court adopted during a diplomatic conference in Rome and thereby established International Criminal Court (ICC) from 1 July 2002. The court, which will be based in The Hague in the Netherlands, will be an international court and a permanent tribunal to prosecute persons for genocide, crimes against humanity and violation of the laws of war. Today (2022), 122 states, including all of South America, most of Europe (including Sweden) and Oceania, have signed and ratified the Charter, while 31 countries (including the USA and Russia) have signed, but not ratified it. 41 of the UN's member states have not yet signed, including China and India, which are critical of the court.
- 2001 - The American artist and singer Aaliyah lets go his third studio album, which receives good reviews and debuts in second place on Billboard chart. However, it will be her last, as she dies in a plane crash just over a month later (August 25).